## Accents - rhythm in Frankish plainchant?

Accents in Western notation are quantitative and correspond to the *diplē* *(διπλή)* or *dyo apostrophoi (δυο ἀπόστροφοι)* in Byzantine Round notation. The Sankt Gall notation modificates the basic forms by an *episema* — a horizontal stroke. The *episemata* can also be used in doubled form, so that some singers interprete the simple form as two times of the usual note and for times for notes with two *episemata*. Others refuse this very strict rhythmic interpretation. The Lorraine scriptoria which developed a more analytical form of notation, use an additional letter that is written under the prolonged neume. A doubled form is not specified.

The accent in Lorraine notation is indicated by the letter «a» for «augete»:

The accent in Sankt Gall notation is horizontal stroke called «episema» -
in this combination the 1st, 3rd & 4th note have an accent and the two last «episemata» replace the usual «puncti»:

The third element of «tristropha» is prolonged by an «episema»:

Sankt Gall notation also uses double «episema» or «episemata» as here on the last note: